## Motivation

Optimization is of great relevance in many fields, including finance (portfolio optimization), engineering (minimizing air resistance), and statistics (likelihood maximization for model fitting). Often, the optimization problem at hand cannot be solved analytically, for example when explicit formulas for gradient or Hessian are not available. In these cases, numerical optimization algorithms are helpful. They iteratively explore the parameter space, guaranteeing to improve the function value over each iteration, and eventually converge to a point where no more improvements can be made . In R, several functions are available that can be applied to numerically solve optimization problems, including (quasi) Newton (stats::nlm(), stats::nlminb(), stats::optim()), direct search (pracma::nelder_mead()), and conjugate gradient methods (Rcgmin::Rcgmin()). The CRAN Task View: Optimization and Mathematical Programming provides a comprehensive list of packages for solving optimization problems.

One thing that all of these numerical optimizers have in common is that initial parameter values must be specified, i.e., the point from where the optimization is started. Optimization theory states that the choice of an initial point has a large influence on the optimization result, in particular convergence time and rate. In general, starting in areas of function saturation increases computation time, starting in areas of non-concavity leads to convergence problems or convergence to local rather than global optima. Consequently, numerical optimization can be facilitated by

1. analyzing the initialization effect for the optimization problem at hand and

2. putting effort on identifying good starting values.

However, it is generally unclear what good initial values are and how they might affect the optimization. Therefore, the purpose of the ino R package1 is to provide a comprehensive toolbox for

1. evaluating the effect of the initial values on the optimization,

2. comparing different initialization strategies,

3. and comparing different optimizers.

## Package functionality

To specify an optimization problem in ino, we use an object-oriented framework based on the R6 package . The general workflow is to first create a Nop object2, and then apply methods to change the attributes of that object, e.g., to optimize the function and investigate the optimization results:

• The starting point for working with ino is to initialize a Nop object via object <- Nop$new(). • Next, use the method $set_optimizer() to define one or more numerical optimizer.

• Then, $evaluate() evaluates and $optimize() optimizes the objective function.

• For analyzing the results, $optima() provides an overview of all identified optima, and the $plot() and $summary() methods summarize the optimization runs. • The methods $standardize() and $reduce() are available to advantageously transform the optimization problem. We illustrate these methods in the following application. ## Workflow We demonstrate the basic ino workflow in the context of likelihood maximization, where we fit a two-class Gaussian mixture model to Geyser eruption times from the popular faithful data set that is provided via base R. Remark: Optimization in this example is very fast. This is because the data set is relatively small and we consider a model with two classes only. Therefore, it might not seem relevant to be concerned about initialization here. However, the problem scales: optimization time will rise with more data and more parameters, in which case initialization becomes a greater issue, see for example Shireman, Steinley, and Brusco (2017). Additionally, we will see that even this simple optimization problem suffers heavily from local optima, depending on the choice of initial values. ### The optimization problem The faithful data set contains information about eruption times (eruptions) of the Old Faithful geyser in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. str(faithful) #> 'data.frame': 272 obs. of 2 variables: #>$ eruptions: num  3.6 1.8 3.33 2.28 4.53 ...
#>  $waiting : num 79 54 74 62 85 55 88 85 51 85 ... The data histogram hints at two clusters with short and long eruption times, respectively. library("ggplot2") ggplot(faithful, aes(x = eruptions)) + geom_histogram(aes(y = after_stat(density)), bins = 30) + xlab("eruption time (min)")  For both clusters, we assume a normal distribution, such that we consider a mixture of two Gaussian densities for modeling the overall eruption times. The log-likelihood function is defined by $$$\ell(\boldsymbol{\theta}) = \sum_{i=1}^n \log\Big( \lambda \phi_{\mu_1, \sigma_1^2}(x_i) + (1-\lambda)\phi_{\mu_2,\sigma_2^2} (x_i) \Big),$$$ where the sum goes over all observations $$1, \dots, n = 272$$, $$\phi_{\mu_1, \sigma_1^2}$$ and $$\phi_{\mu_2, \sigma_2^2}$$ denote the normal density for the first and second cluster, respectively, and $$\lambda$$ is the mixing proportion. The parameter vector to be estimated is thus $$\boldsymbol{\theta} = (\mu_1, \mu_2, \sigma_1, \sigma_2, \lambda)$$. As there exists no closed-form solution for the maximum likelihood estimator $$\boldsymbol{\theta}^* = \arg\max_{\boldsymbol{\theta}} \ell(\boldsymbol{\theta})$$, we need numerical optimization for finding the function optimum. The following function calculates the log-likelihood value given the parameter vector theta and the observation vector data. Remark: We restrict the standard deviations sd to be positive (via the exponential transformation) and lambda to be between 0 and 1 (via the logit transformation). The function returns the negative log-likelihood value by default (neg = TRUE). This is necessary because most R optimizers only minimize (e.g., stats::nlm), where we can use the fact that $$\arg\max_{\boldsymbol{\theta}} \ell(\boldsymbol{\theta}) = \arg\min_{\boldsymbol{\theta}} -\ell(\boldsymbol{\theta})$$. normal_mixture_llk <- function(theta, data, neg = TRUE){ stopifnot(length(theta) == 5) mu <- theta[1:2] sd <- exp(theta[3:4]) lambda <- plogis(theta[5]) llk <- sum(log( lambda * dnorm(data, mu[1], sd[1]) + (1 - lambda) * dnorm(data, mu[2], sd[2]) )) ifelse(neg, -llk, llk) } normal_mixture_llk(theta = 1:5, data = faithful$eruptions)
#> [1] 1069.623

### Another optimization approach: the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm

Solving $$\boldsymbol{\theta}^* = \arg\max_{\boldsymbol{\theta}} \ell(\boldsymbol{\theta})$$ requires numerical aid because $$\frac{\text{d}}{\text{d}\boldsymbol{\theta}} \ell(\boldsymbol{\theta})$$ does not have a closed-form solution. However, if we knew the class membership of each observation, the optimization problem would collapse to independent maximum likelihood estimation of two Gaussian distributions, which then can be solved analytically. This observation motivates the so-called expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm , which iterates through the following steps:

1. Initialize $$\boldsymbol{\theta}$$ and compute $$\ell(\boldsymbol{\theta})$$.
2. Calculate the posterior probabilities for each observation’s class membership, conditional on $$\boldsymbol{\theta}$$.
3. Calculate the maximum likelihood estimate $$\boldsymbol{\bar{\theta}}$$ conditional on the posterior probabilities from step 2.
4. Evaluate $$\ell(\boldsymbol{\bar{\theta}})$$. Now stop if the likelihood improvement $$\ell(\boldsymbol{\bar{\theta}}) - \ell(\boldsymbol{\theta})$$ is smaller than some threshold epsilon or some iteration limit iterlim is reached. Otherwise, go back to step 2.

The following function implements this algorithm, which we will compare to standard numerical optimization below.

em <- function(normal_mixture_llk, theta, epsilon = 1e-08, iterlim = 1000, data) {
llk <- normal_mixture_llk(theta, data, neg = FALSE)
mu <- theta[1:2]
sd <- exp(theta[3:4])
lambda <- plogis(theta[5])
for (i in 1:iterlim) {
class_1 <- lambda * dnorm(data, mu[1], sd[1])
class_2 <- (1 - lambda) * dnorm(data, mu[2], sd[2])
posterior <- class_1 / (class_1 + class_2)
lambda <- mean(posterior)
mu[1] <- mean(posterior * data) / lambda
mu[2] <- (mean(data) - lambda * mu[1]) / (1 - lambda)
sd[1] <- sqrt(mean(posterior * (data - mu[1])^2) / lambda)
sd[2] <- sqrt(mean((1 - posterior) * (data - mu[2])^2) / (1 - lambda))
llk_old <- llk
theta <- c(mu, log(sd), qlogis(lambda))
llk <- normal_mixture_llk(theta, data, neg = FALSE)
if (is.na(llk)) stop("fail")
if (llk - llk_old < epsilon) break
}
list("neg_llk" = -llk, "estimate" = theta, "iterations" = i)
}

### Setup

The optimization problem is specified as a Nop object called mixture_ino, where

• f is the function to be optimized (here normal_mixture_llk),
• npar specifies the length of the parameter vector over which f is optimized (five in this case),
• and data gives the observation vector as required by our likelihood function.
mixture_ino <- Nop$new( f = normal_mixture_llk, npar = 5, data = faithful$eruptions
)

The next step concerns specifying the numerical optimizer via the $set_optimizer() method. Remark: Numerical optimizers must be specified through the unified framework provided by the {optimizeR} package . This is necessary because there is no a priori consistency across optimization functions in R with regard to their function inputs and outputs. This would make it impossible to allow for arbitrary optimizers and to compare their results, see the {optimizeR} README file for details. It is possible to define any numerical optimizer implemented in R through the {optimizeR} framework. Here, we select two of the most popular ones, stats::nlm() and stats::optim(): mixture_ino$
set_optimizer(optimizer_nlm(), label = "nlm")$set_optimizer(optimizer_optim(), label = "optim") Remark: The previous code chunk makes use of a technique called “method chaining” (see Wickham 2019, ch. 14.2.1). This means that mixture_ino$set_optimizer() returns the modified mixture_ino object, for which we can specify a second optimizer by calling $set_optimizer() again. We also want to apply the EM algorithm introduced above: em_optimizer <- optimizeR::define_optimizer( .optimizer = em, .objective = "normal_mixture_llk", .initial = "theta", .value = "neg_llk", .parameter = "estimate", .direction = "min" ) mixture_ino$set_optimizer(em_optimizer, label = "em")

Finally, we can validate our specification:

mixture_ino$evaluate(at = 1:5) #> [1] 1069.623 ### Function optimization Optimization of normal_mixture_llk is possible with the $optimize() method, for example:

mixture_ino$optimize( initial = "random", which_optimizer = "nlm", save_result = FALSE, return_result = TRUE ) #>$value
#> [1] NA
#>
#> $parameter #> [1] NA #> #>$seconds
#> [1] NA
#>
#> $initial #> [1] -0.6264538 0.1836433 -0.8356286 1.5952808 0.3295078 #> #>$error
#> [1] "attempt to select less than one element in get1index"

The method arguments are:

• initial = "random" for random starting values drawn from a standard normal distribution,

• which_optimizer = "nlm" for optimization with the above specified stats::nlm optimizer,

• save_result = FALSE to not save the optimization result inside the mixture_ino object (see below),

• and return_results = TRUE to directly return the optimization result instead.

The return value is a list of:

• value, the optimum function value,

• parameter, the parameter vector where value is obtained,

• seconds, the estimation time in seconds,

• initial, the starting parameter vector for the optimization,

• and gradient, code, and iterations, which are outputs specific to the stats::nlm optimizer.

### Initialization effect

We are interested in the effect of the starting values on the optimization, i.e., whether different initial values lead to different results. We therefore optimize the likelihood function runs = 100 times at different random starting points (initial = "random") and compare the identified optima:

mixture_ino$optimize( initial = "random", runs = 100, label = "random", save_results = TRUE, seed = 1 ) Note: 1. We label the optimization results with label = "random", which will be useful later for comparisons. 2. We set save_results = TRUE to save the optimization results inside the mixture_ino object (so that we can use the $optima(), $summary(), and $plot() methods for comparisons, see below).
3. The seed = 1 argument ensures reproducibility.

The $optima() method provides an overview of the identified optima. Here, we ignore any decimal places by setting digits = 0 and sort by the optimum function value: mixture_ino$optima(digits = 0, which_run = "random", sort_by = "value")
#>    value frequency
#> 1    276       106
#> 2    277         1
#> 3    283         1
#> 4    290         1
#> 5    294         1
#> 6    296         1
#> 7    316         1
#> 8    323         1
#> 9    355         1
#> 10   364         1
#> 11   368         1
#> 12   372         1
#> 13   374         1
#> 14   389         1
#> 15   395         2
#> 16   397         1
#> 17   400         1
#> 18   402         2
#> 19   406         1
#> 20   415         1
#> 21   419         2
#> 22   420         1
#> 23   421       163
#> 24  <NA>         7

The 100 optimization runs with 3 optimizers using random starting values led to 23 different optima (minima in this case, because we minimized normal_mixture_llk()), while 7 optimization runs failed. We therefore can already deduce that the initial values have a huge impact on the optimization result.

Looking at this overview optimizer-wise reveals that the stats::optim optimizer seems to be most vulnerable to local optima:

mixture_ino$optima(digits = 0, which_run = "random", sort_by = "value", which_optimizer = "nlm") #> value frequency #> 1 276 20 #> 2 402 1 #> 3 421 79 mixture_ino$optima(digits = 0, which_run = "random", sort_by = "value", which_optimizer = "optim")
#>    value frequency
#> 1    276         4
#> 2    277         1
#> 3    283         1
#> 4    290         1
#> 5    294         1
#> 6    296         1
#> 7    316         1
#> 8    323         1
#> 9    355         1
#> 10   364         1
#> 11   368         1
#> 12   372         1
#> 13   374         1
#> 14   389         1
#> 15   395         2
#> 16   400         1
#> 17   402         1
#> 18   406         1
#> 19   415         1
#> 20   419         2
#> 21   420         1
#> 22   421        74
mixture_ino$optima(digits = 0, which_run = "random", sort_by = "value", which_optimizer = "em") #> value frequency #> 1 276 82 #> 2 397 1 #> 3 421 10 #> 4 <NA> 7 The two most occurring optima are 421 and 276 with total frequencies of 163 and 106, respectively. The value 276 is the overall minimum (potentially the global minimum), while 421 is significantly worse. To compare the parameter vectors that led to these different values, we can use the $closest_parameter() method. From the saved optimization runs, it extracts the parameter vector corresponding to an optimum closest to value. We consider only results from the nlm optimizer here:

(mle <- mixture_ino$closest_parameter(value = 276, which_run = "random", which_optimizer = "nlm")) #> [1] 2.02 4.27 -1.45 -0.83 -0.63 #> attr(,"run") #> [1] 99 #> attr(,"optimizer") #> [1] "nlm" mixture_ino$evaluate(at = as.vector(mle))
#> [1] 276.3699
mle_run <- attr(mle, "run")
(bad <- mixture_ino$closest_parameter(value = 421, which_run = "random", which_optimizer = "nlm")) #> [1] 3.49 2.11 0.13 -0.09 17.49 #> attr(,"run") #> [1] 13 #> attr(,"optimizer") #> [1] "nlm" mixture_ino$evaluate(at = as.vector(bad))
#> [1] 421.4176
bad_run <- attr(bad, "run")

These two parameter vectors are saved as mle (this shall be our maximum likelihood estimate) and bad (this clearly is a bad estimate). Two attributes show the run id and the optimizer that led to these parameters.

To understand the values in terms of means, standard deviations, and mixing proportion (i.e., in the form $$\boldsymbol{\theta} = (\mu_1, \mu_2, \sigma_1, \sigma_2, \lambda)$$), they need transformation (see above):

transform <- function(theta) c(theta[1:2], exp(theta[3:4]), plogis(theta[5]))
(mle <- transform(mle))
#> [1] 2.0200000 4.2700000 0.2345703 0.4360493 0.3475105
#> [1] 3.4900000 2.1100000 1.1388284 0.9139312 1.0000000

The two estimates mle and bad for $$\boldsymbol{\theta}$$ correspond to the following mixture densities:

mixture_density <- function (data, mu, sd, lambda) {
lambda * dnorm(data, mu[1], sd[1]) + (1 - lambda) * dnorm(data, mu[2], sd[2])
}
ggplot(faithful, aes(x = eruptions)) +
geom_histogram(aes(y = after_stat(density)), bins = 30) +
labs(x = "eruption time (min)", colour = "parameter") +
stat_function(
fun = function(x) {
mixture_density(x, mu = mle[1:2], sd = mle[3:4], lambda = mle[5])
}, aes(color = "mle"), linewidth = 1
) +
stat_function(
fun = function(x) {
}, aes(color = "bad"), linewidth = 1
)

The mixture defined by the mle parameter fits much better than bad, which practically estimates only a single class. However, the gradients at both points are close to zero, which explains why the nlm optimizer terminates at both points:

mixture_ino$results( which_run = c(mle_run, bad_run), which_optimizer = "nlm", which_element = "gradient" ) #> [[1]] #> gradient1 gradient2 gradient3 gradient4 gradient5 #> 3.487745e-05 -5.376563e-08 8.697043e-06 4.604317e-06 6.563244e-07 #> #> [[2]] #> gradient1 gradient2 gradient3 gradient4 gradient5 #> -8.618280e-06 1.882080e-06 1.025954e-06 2.162324e-06 5.474021e-07 ### Custom sampler for initial values Depending on the application and the magnitude of the parameters to be estimated, initial values drawn from a standard normal distribution (which is the default behavior when calling $optimize(initial = "random")) may not be a good guess. We can, however, easily modify the distribution that is used to draw the initial values. For example, the next code snippet uses starting values drawn from a $$\mathcal{N}(\mu = 2, \sigma = 0.5)$$ distribution:

sampler <- function() stats::rnorm(5, mean = 2, sd = 0.5)
mixture_ino$optimize(initial = sampler, runs = 100, label = "custom_sampler") To obtain the first results of these optimization runs, we can use the summary() method. Note that setting which_run = "custom_sampler" allows filtering, which is the benefit of setting a label when calling $optimize().

summary(mixture_ino, which_run = "custom_sampler", digits = 2) |>
#>     value                        parameter
#> 1  421.42   3.49, 2.11, 0.13, -0.16, 16.74
#> 2  421.42 3.49, -1.41, 0.13, -10.17, 16.53
#> 3  276.36  2.02, 4.27, -1.45, -0.83, -0.63
#> 4  276.36   4.27, 2.02, -0.83, -1.45, 0.63
#> 5  421.42    3.49, 5.54, 0.13, 1.79, 14.70
#> 6  276.36   4.27, 2.02, -0.83, -1.45, 0.63
#> 7  276.36   4.27, 2.02, -0.83, -1.45, 0.63
#> 8  405.72    4.33, 2.16, 0.06, -0.36, 0.70
#> 9  276.36   4.27, 2.02, -0.83, -1.45, 0.63
#> 10 276.36   4.27, 2.02, -0.83, -1.45, 0.63

Again we obtain different optima (even more than before). But in contrast, most of the runs here lead to the presumably global optimum of 276:

mixture_ino$optima(digits = 0, sort_by = "value", which_run = "custom_sampler") #> value frequency #> 1 276 184 #> 2 277 1 #> 3 278 1 #> 4 283 1 #> 5 288 1 #> 6 289 1 #> 7 291 1 #> 8 292 1 #> 9 295 1 #> 10 297 1 #> 11 303 1 #> 12 314 1 #> 13 316 1 #> 14 317 1 #> 15 320 1 #> 16 321 1 #> 17 329 1 #> 18 331 1 #> 19 333 1 #> 20 335 1 #> 21 337 1 #> 22 338 1 #> 23 339 1 #> 24 347 1 #> 25 351 1 #> 26 352 1 #> 27 359 1 #> 28 368 1 #> 29 376 1 #> 30 377 1 #> 31 380 2 #> 32 390 3 #> 33 395 1 #> 34 397 1 #> 35 398 1 #> 36 401 1 #> 37 402 1 #> 38 403 1 #> 39 405 1 #> 40 406 2 #> 41 409 2 #> 42 411 2 #> 43 415 1 #> 44 416 2 #> 45 417 1 #> 46 419 1 #> 47 421 64 ### Educated guesses Next we make “educated guesses” about starting values that are probably close to the global optimum. Based on the histogram above, the means of the two normal distributions may be somewhere around 2 and 4. We will use sets of starting values where the means are lower and larger than 2 and 4, respectively. For the variances, we set the starting values close to 1 (note that we use the log transformation here since we restrict the standard deviations to be positive by using exp() in the log-likelihood function). The starting value for the mixing proportion shall be around 0.5. This leads to the following 32 combinations of starting values: mu_1 <- c(1.7, 2.3) mu_2 <- c(4.3, 3.7) sd_1 <- sd_2 <- c(log(0.8), log(1.2)) lambda <- c(qlogis(0.4), qlogis(0.6)) starting_values <- asplit(expand.grid(mu_1, mu_2, sd_1, sd_2, lambda), MARGIN = 1) In the $optimize() method, instead of initial = "random", we can set initial to a numeric vector of length npar, or, for convenience, to a list of such vectors, like starting_values:

mixture_ino$optimize(initial = starting_values, label = "educated_guess") These “educated guesses” lead to a way more stable optimization: mixture_ino$optima(digits = 0, which_run = "educated_guess")
#>   value frequency
#> 1   276        95
#> 2   277         1

For comparison, we consider a set of implausible starting values…

mixture_ino$optimize(initial = rep(0, 5), label = "bad_guess") … which lead to local optima: summary(mixture_ino, which_run = "bad_guess") #> value parameter #> 1 421.42 3.49, 3.49, 0.13, 0.13, 0.00 #> 2 384.78 1.84, 3.64, -2.92, -0.03, -3.00 #> 3 421.42 3.49, 3.49, 0.13, 0.13, 0.00 ### Standardizing the optimization problem In some situations, it is possible to consider a standardized version of the optimization problem, which could potentially improve the performance of the numerical optimizer. In our example, we can standardize the data before running the optimization via the $standardize() method:

mixture_ino$standardize("data") str(mixture_ino$get_argument("data"))

To optimize the likelihood using the standardized data set, we again use $optmize(), which by default uses random starting values. Below, we will compare these results with those obtained on the original optimization problem. mixture_ino$
optimize(runs = 100, label = "data_standardized")$reset_argument("data") The usage of $reset_argument("data") is important: to perform further optimization runs after having applied standardized initialization, we undo the standardization of the data and obtain the original data set. If we would not use $reset_argument(), all further optimization runs will be carried out on the standardized data set. ### Reducing the optimization problem In some situations, it is possible to first optimize a sub-problem and use those results as an initialization for the full optimization problem. For example, in the context of likelihood maximization, if the data set considered shows some complex structures or is very large, numerical optimization may become computationally costly. In such cases, it can be beneficial to initially consider a reduced data set. The following application of the $reduce() method transforms "data" by selecting a proportion of 30% data points at random:

mixture_ino$reduce(argument_name = "data", how = "random", prop = 0.3, seed = 1) str(mixture_ino$get_argument("data"))

Similar to the standardizing above, calling $optimize() now optimizes on the reduced data set: mixture_ino$
optimize(runs = 100, label = "data_subset")$reset_argument("data")$
continue()

Again, we use $reset_argument("data") to obtain the original data set. The $continue() method now optimizes on the whole data set using the estimates obtained on the reduced data as initial values.

In addition to selecting sub samples at random (how = "random"), four other options exist via specifying the argument how:

• "first" selects the top data points,
• "last" selects the last data points,
• "similar selects similar data points based on k-means clustering,
• "dissimilar" is similar to "similar" but selects dissimilar data points.

See the other two vignettes for demonstrations of these options.

### Optimization times

The $plot() method provides an overview of the optimization times. Setting by = "label" allows for comparison across initialization strategies, setting relative = TRUE plots relative differences to the median of the top boxplot: mixture_ino$plot(by = "label", relative = TRUE, xlim = c(-1, 3))
#> ℹ Dropped 15 results with missing data.

Setting by = "optimizer" allows comparison across optimizers:

mixture_ino$plot(by = "optimizer", relative = FALSE, xlim = c(0, 0.05)) #> ℹ Dropped 15 results with missing data. ### The global optimum The best optimization result can be extracted via: mixture_ino$best_value()
#> [1] 248.98
#> attr(,"run")
#> [1] 421
#> attr(,"optimizer")
#> [1] "em"
mixture_ino$best_parameter() #> [1] 3.53 1.75 0.11 -32.71 3.79 #> attr(,"run") #> [1] 421 #> attr(,"optimizer") #> [1] "em" The best function value of 248.98 is unique: head(mixture_ino$optima(digits = 0, sort_by = "value"))
#>   value frequency
#> 1   249         1
#> 2   276       516
#> 3   277         4
#> 4   278         1
#> 5   283         2
#> 6   288         1

Furthermore, it does not produce a two-class mixture, since one class variance is practically zero, see the output of mixture_ino$best_parameter(). We could therefore delete this result from our Nop object: mixture_ino$clear(which_run = attr(mixture_ino\$best_value(), "run"))

The final Nop object then looks as follows:

print(mixture_ino)
#> Optimization problem:
#> - Function: normal_mixture_llk
#> - Optimize over: theta (length 5)
#> Numerical optimizer:
#> - 1: nlm
#> - 2: optim
#> - 3: em
#> Optimization results:
#> - Total runs (comparable): 433 (332)
#> - Best parameter: 2.02 4.27 -1.45 -0.83 -0.63
#> - Best value: 276.36

## References

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Chang, W. 2021. R6: Encapsulated Classes with Reference Semantics. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=R6.
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Nocedal, J., and S. J. Wright. 2006. “Quadratic Programming.” Numerical Optimization, 448–92.
Oelschläger, L., and M. Ötting. 2023. optimizeR: Unified Framework for Numerical Optimizer. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=optimizeR.
Shireman, E., D. Steinley, and M. J. Brusco. 2017. “Examining the Effect of Initialization Strategies on the Performance of Gaussian Mixture Modeling.” Behavior Research Methods 49 (1): 282–93.
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